- Identifying & analyzing supervisor development needs.
- Developing supervisor capabilities to support the implementation of the management strategies.
- Help supervisors to develop strategies to adopt the change.
- Provide opportunities for technological updating.
- Train the supervisor for post MFA era.
The Supervisor’s Job
- Line Balancing:
Senior management will select the production system, the degree of sectionalized working and the amount of work in programs permitted. These in turn will influence the time that a supervisor should spend in ensuring that the line is and will stay in balance. Nevertheless, it is likely that effective supervisors will spend more than half their time in this activity. Much can be achieved by visual balancing but it is essential that written checks be carried out too. It is important that these are done at the agreed times, since the supervisor’s balance sheet is a document for management only if they can rely on the accuracy of the information. Over frequents checks will interfere with the supervisor’s other work and will lead to fictional accounts. One purpose of the regular check is to provide an opportunity for the supervisor to speak with every operative on the line.
A production schedule is vital if deliveries are to be made on time. A simple wall chart on which production days are shown will often be adequate to mark the progress of orders and to indicate deadlines. On the shop floor the first and last bundles in an order should be noted by the supervisor and reported daily as a check on progress. Supervisors should be told when to expect work and the date by which the last bundle must be completed, in order that the delivery date can be achieved. A written schedule for each week should be issued in advance.
The achievement of consistent quality at the required level should be the supervisor’s aim. Records of rework, repairs and rejects enable the manager and supervisor to monitor this activity and take corrective action before too much defective work has been produced. The information must be presented simply in such a way that it can be easily analyzed. Complicated mathematics is counterproductive in this field although long term monitoring of trends may be treated in a more sophisticated way. It must be read and used on a regular basis rather than whenever a quality drive is on. Anticipation of defects by noting likely causes has also a part to play.
Quality checking Tools
- Cause-and-effect diagram (also known as the “fishbone” or Ishikawa diagram)
- Check sheet.
- Control chart
- Pareto chart.
- Scatter diagram.
- Stratification (alternately, flow chart or run chart)
GOOD QUALITY IS UP TO THE SUPERVISOR AND THE OPERATIVES.
QUALITY CONTROL IS THERE TO HELP THEM.
Very few people like paper work as it is, itself unproductive, we must keep it to minimum. But if it is to be done, it is better that it is well done. In accurate checks, carried out at the wrong time, are harmful. For example, where there is a daily coupon sheet it must be verified and initiated by the supervisor, before it is handed into payroll office. The next day, when it is returned with the performance and the bonus calculated, the supervisor should note the performance recorded and comment on any significant change to the operator. The supervisor should make sure that each operator understands how the bonus is calculated and discuss any point of disagreement, passing them on if appropriate. If at all possible, queries should be answered the same day.
The demand for good training comes naturally from the desire of a supervisor to improve the efficiency of the section. A separate training section can be useful in training new starters and retaining operators to correct their methods or to acquire new skills. On the job instructors may be available to assist the supervisors in overcoming training problems on the production line. If supervisors do not agree with the methods of the training specialists they must never say so to trainees but discuss the matter honestly and privately with the specialists themselves.
- Welfare and other activities:
Supervisors should be encouraged to regard the welfare of operatives as their responsibilities. After all the supervisor knows them best and by helping them with their problems, can establish a good working relationship. Nevertheless, the personnel officer and factory nurse as useful aids and not rivals. Their assistance should be sought with anything that is time consuming. Up to 10 matters not strictly related to production. Studies have shown that this is essential for the friendly cooperation, which makes a successful section.
Sample of a list of supervisory duties
- Planning the allocation of the operatives within the section, in order to balance throughput.
- Ensuring that cut work, garments from another section, thread and trims are ordered with adequate notice and checks on delivery.
- Checking that work is produced within quality tolerances.
- Inspecting some of the work passed by the examiners, correcting them as necessary, and informing the quality manager of major problems.
- Making recommendations for improved methods and layouts.
- Checking that standard practices produce garments which are up to the required standard of quality.
- Ensuring that the standard methods, tools, machinery and layouts are used.
- Giving instructions to the operators on the standard practices, especially operating methods.
- Handling queries about wages and bonuses, but reporting to the wages office if help is needed to resolve the problem.
- Collecting and delivering coupon sheets and weekly pay sheets.
- Correcting off- standard conditions where possible.
- Ensuring that the section is kept on standard as much as possible.
Supervisor Training Needs
- How well is each duty being done at present?
- How big a part do supervisors play in controlling it?
- How much difference does it make to the profitability of the factory?
From these questions, a few key result areas will emerge. From these it will be necessary to select those which can be tackled with a fair chance of success, in order to provide confidence for further work.
What can be done?
- What are the options for overcoming the difficulty?
- How big a part can training play?
- What needs to be done before training can start?
- How do you know if a function is done properly?
- Can the information be quantified?
- Can better control information be provided at an economic cost?
- How will the supervisors receive it?
What? Where? When? Why? How? Who?
Will the benefit outweigh the cost?
Supervisor’s Check list
- Start up
- Manning – Visual check of section, note absentees, allocate floatets
- Daily books – Check coupon sheets
- Enter totals in book
- Regualr Checks
- Hourly Checks – balancing sheet, work I process, plan ahead
- Quality checks – at passing, key operation, learners
- Discuss with operators concern
- Once a day
- Manager’s rounds – show book, discuss yesterday’s output and today’s plan
- Capacity checks – at least two operators per day
- Concentrate on weak lines
- Combine with method and quality check
- Visit trainees – in training center and in section
- General tidiness – Work places, void coupons to boxes etc.
- Machines – Look for signs of troubles developing
- Outstanding repairs from previous day
- Time keeping – Late coming, inaccurate booking of off- standard time
- Bonus and hours – recorded accurately, agreed by operator
- Performance – up or down
- Planning – Work coming on to section, new styles or cloth targets
- Supervisor’s – Off- standard time and reasons, quality standards
Sections to be trained into:-
|Interpersonal Communication||·Understand the importance of regional language for operators.|
·An effective communicator is able to convey his message to operators.
·Understand and develop strategies to resolve communication problems so that production is not lost because of these things.
|Workplace Respect||·Awareness of the legal responsibilities like no forced labour, no sexual harassment and no child labour is practised in the garment Industry.|
·Take care that equal wages are paid for equal work to both male and female workers in the garment industry.
·Clarity of what to do if someone has become the victim of harassment in the industry.
|Managing Day to Day Performance||·Set a goal for each day production and operators should be aware of the goal.|
·At the end of the day check whether goal is achieved or not. If not what measures can be taken to achieve it.
·Select appropriate method for achieving the goal and take care that method is appropriate for operators also.
·Give reward for timely completion of goal. This will always motivate workers.
|Productivity||·Planning should be done much earlier to achieve productivity.|
·Operators should be equipped with folders wherever necessary.
Note down the things which are hindrance in achieving productivity.
|Quality Control||·Inspection should be done at each stage so that there is no defective piece.|
·Give quality control training to all the operators so that any issue related to that is eliminated at the earliest.
·Identify and communicate quality measures to your management and operators.
|Scheduling||·Schedule in such a way that order is completed within time.|
·Prepare a chart for all the extra equipments required in case of any style change.
·Schedule manpower equipment and material requirements.
|HR Management||·Identify whether drinking water facility, canteen facility, creche for small babies, toilets are provided to the operators.|
·Most of the workers in a garment industry are female operators so their needs should be taken care.
·Managers should also see that salary is given on time because this the only source of income for these operators.
At the end their training takeaway can be tested using the given set of questions.
Que. 1. What are the most important skills required for supervisors?
Que. 2. In which areas do you think supervisors need improvement?
Que. 3. What all topics should be covered in supervisor training program related to production?
Que. 4. Are the supervisors able to cope up with style changes (Fabric/style)?
Que. 5. How much is the average start up loss in your company & what should be optimum start up loss?
Average start up loss:
Optimum start up loss:
Que. 6. How the supervisors do line balancing in your company?
- By experience
- By using line plan given by IED
- Any other method
Que. 7. Are the supervisors efficient in
- Handling manpower
- Handling operator absenteeism
- Forecasting of labor turn over
- Finding reasons of absenteeism/turn over
Que. 8. Are the supervisors able to recognize & handle machine problem?
Que. 9. What are the skills required for supervisors for better manpower management?
Que. 10. Are the supervisors aware of operator’s grievance and do they communicate it to HR department ?
Que. 11. What are the skills required for batch supervisors according to IED point of view
Que. 12. Are the supervisors aware of ?
- Skill Matrix
- Operator’s Rating
- Work Study
- Optimum WIP In Batch Between Operators
- Pitch Diagrams
- Work Sampling
Que. 13. Are they aware of various production systems ?
Que. 14. What are the skills required for batch supervisors according to quality point of view
Que. 15. Are the supervisors efficient in handling rework?
Que. 16. Are the supervisors concerned for quality or they concentrate only productivity?
Que. 17. Are the bad supervisors aware of the quality requirement of buyer and how to achieve them?
Note:- Although this training methodology can be used in any sector, but this is highly applicable in garment industry supervisor’s training.